Thaddeus K. Graczyk, Ph.D.
Associate Clinical Professor


Office: SR113
Phone: 928.344-7589
Fax: 928.317-6419


Associate Clinical Professor


    A.B., 1977, in Biology; Dabrowski College, Warsaw, Poland

    M.Sc., 1982, in Ecology, with distinction; Warsaw University, Warsaw, Poland.

    Ph.D., 1988, in Infectious Diseases; with distinction; Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

    Postdoctoral Training

    1988-1990, Department of Biology and Systematic of Helminthes, Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

    1990-1991, Malaria Laboratory, Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.




SC Building Room 113

NAU-Yuma Branch Campus
2020 S. Ave. 8E
Yuma, Arizona 85366


Curriculum Vitae

2009 - present: National Science Foundation, Scholarship in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (S-STEM) Project, STEM Project Information.

Science Group

Science Group

STEM Project Student Cohort


The 2nd Annual Insect Rally In Celebration of National Wildlife Refuge Week “Creepy, Crawly, Beautiful Bugs”, Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, 9:00 AM - 12:00 Noon, Oct. 15, 2011.

International Conference on Water Quality and Water Supply to be held Sept. 9th-12th, 2012 in Stare Jablonki, Poland

Water resources Research Center Conference, Jan. 24, 2012, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.


Honors, Awards, Patents and Service:


2011; NAU-Yuma Bien Hecho Advisory Board Member, Northern Arizona University, Yuma, AZ, USA.

2011;  Sustainability Council Member, Arizona Western College, Yuma, AZ, USA.

2011;  Water Resources Research Center Member, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

2011; Director of the Board of the Kofa Refuge Friends, Yuma AZ, USA

2011; Advisory Board Member, The Science, Technology, Education, Agriculture and Mathematics (STEAM) Early College Academy, Yuma, AZ, USA

2004; Certificate of Recognition; The United Way of Central Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA.

2005; Certificate of Excellence for Improving Animal Health by Completing the Study Entitled: “Novel Application of FISH and IFA for Detection of Anthropozoonotic Parasites Infecting Human-Habituated Gorillas”, Morris Animal Foundation, CO, USA.

2006; Certificate of Appreciation for Helping Provide a Healthier Tomorrow for Animals, Morris Animal Foundation, CO, USA.

2007- present; Scientific Council Member, Polish Parasitological Society, Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

2008 - present; Scientific Board Member, Polish Society of Environmental Engineers, Division of Water, Poznan, Poland.

2008 - present; Scientific Committee Member, Institute of Environmental Health Engineering, Water and Sanitation Division, Czestochowa, Poland.


1998; News Journal Highlights Award, American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, USA.
2003; Award for Best Presentation, American Water Works Association Foundation, “Cryptosporidium Contamination of the Chesapeake Bay”, Ocean City, MD, USA.
2004; Travel Award, American Society of Parasitology, Fort Collins, CO, USA. 
2004; US Department of Commerce Unit Recognition Award for “Scientific Leadership in the Discovery of Waterborne Human Pathogens Resulting from Fecal Pollution of Coastal Waters from Maine to Texas Using Shellfish as Biological Indicators that Filter, Concentrate, and Retain Pathogens from the Water”, Oxford, MD, USA.
2006; Advising, Mentoring, Teaching Recognition Award (AMTRA), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
2007; Diploma Honorificum, Socii Nomen Honoris Causa, Polish Parasitological Society, Miedzyzdroje, Poland,
2009; Advising, Mentoring, Teaching Recognition Award (AMTRA), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.


US Patent 7107824. Title: “Apparatus for the separation of cystic parasite forms from water”, 09/19/2006.

Services to the Department and University

2011; External reviewer for the Environmental Science Program of the Arizona Western College, Yuma, AZ, USA
2011;   Recruitment Committee Member, Department of Arts and Sciences, Northern Arizona
University, Yuma, AZ, USA
2011;   Recruitment Committee Member, Department of Education, Northern Arizona, University, Yuma, AZ, USA

Areas of Interest:

Public Health and Infectious Diseases; Everybody’s Business
(Selected Publications)

  1. Graham, J. P., L. B. Price, S. E. Evans, T. K. Graczyk, and E. K. Silbergeld. 2009. Antibiotic resistant Enterococci and Staphylococci isolated from flies collected near confined poultry feeding operations. Science of the Total Environment, 407 (8); 2701-2710.
  2. McOliver, C. C., H. B. Lemerman, E. K. Silbergeld, R. D. Moore, and T. K. Graczyk. 2009. Risk exposure to waterborne pathogens among persons with HIV/AIDS in Baltimore, Maryland. American Journal of Public Health, 99 (6): 1116-1122.
  3. Graczyk, T. K., M. Johansson, L. Tamang, G. S. Visvesvara, L. S. Moura, A. J. DaSilva, A. S. Girouard, and O. Matos. 2007. Retrospective species identification of microsporidian spores in diarrhetic fecal samples from HIV/AIDS patients by multiplexed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).  Journal of Clinical Microbiology 45 (4); 1255-1260.
  4. Graczyk, T. K., C. J. Shiff, L. Tamang, F. Munsaka, A. M. Beitin, and W. J. Moss. 2005. The association of Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana with diarrhea in Zambian school-age children. Parasitology Research 98: 38-43.
  5. Graczyk, T. K., R. Knight, and L. Tamang 2005. Mechanical transmission of human protozoan parasites by insects. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 18: 128-132.
  6. Graczyk, T. K., R. Knight, R. H. Gilman, and M. R. Cranfield. 2001. The role of non-biting flies in the epidemiology of human infectious diseases. Microbes and Infection 3, (3): 231-235.

Veterinary Medicine; a Healthier Tomorrow for Animals
(Selected Publications)

  1. Graczyk, T. K., M. R. Cranfield, and S. L. Hill. 1996. Therapeutical efficacy of Spiramycin and Halofuginone treatment against Cryptosporidium serpentis (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporiidiidae) infections in captive snakes.  Parasitology Research 82, (2): 143-148.
  2. Graczyk, T. K., G. H. Balazs, T. Work, A. A. Aguirre, D. M. Ellis, S. K. K. Murakawa, and R. Morris. 1997. Cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63 (7): 2925-2927.
  3. Graczyk, T. K., M. R. Cranfield, C. Dunning, and J. D. Strandberg. 1998. Fatal cryptosporidiosis in a juvenile captive African hedgehog (Ateletrix albiventris). Journal of Parasitology 84, (1): 178-180.
  4. Nizeyi, J. B., R. Mwebe, A. Nanteza, M. R. Cranfield, G. R. N. N. Kalema, and T. K. Graczyk. 1999. Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. infections in mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) of the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Journal of Parasitology 85, (6): 1084-1088.
  5. Graczyk, T. K., L. J. Lowenstine and M. R. Cranfield. 1999. Capillaria hepatica (Nematoda) infections in human-habituated Mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) of the Parc National de Volcans, Rwanda. Journal of Parasitology 85, (6): 1168-1170.
  6. Mukherjee G., T. K. Graczyk, D. Magid, M. R. Cranfield, and J. D. Strandberg. 1999. Feline asthma syndrome in African lions (Panthera leo). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 30, (4): 555-560.

Conservation Medicine; Principles of Environmental Health
(Selected Publications)

  1. Patz, J. A., T. K. Graczyk, N. Geller, and Amy Vittor. 2000. Effects of environmental changes on emerging parasitic diseases. International Journal for Parasitology 30, (12,13): 1395-1405.
  2. Graczyk, T. K., B. M. Evans, C. J. Shiff, H. J. Karreman, and J. A. Patz. 2000. Environmental and geographical factors contributing to watershed contamination with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Environmental Research 82, (3): 263-271.
  3. Szilagyi, J., M. B. Parlange, J. A. Patz, and T. K. Graczyk. 2002. Sensitivity of watershed runoff under humid conditions to potential climate variations. Journal of Environmental Engineering 128, (7): 635-642.
  4. Roberts, J. D., E. K. Silbergeld, and T. K. Graczyk. 2007. A probabilistic risk assessment of Cryptosporidium exposure among Baltimore urban anglers. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 70: 1568-1576.

Water Treatment, Reuse, and Reclamation; This is Your Water so Use it Wisely!
(Selected Publications)

  1. Graczyk, T.K., F. E. Lucy,  L. Tamang, Y. Mashinsky,  M. A. Broaders, M. Connolly, and H-W. A. Cheng. 2009. Propagation of human enteropathogens in constructed horizontal wetlands used for tertiary wastewater treatment. Applied Environmental Microbiology 75 (13): 4531-4538.
  2. Graczyk, T. K., and F. E. Lucy. 2007. Quality of reclaimed waters; a public health need for source-tracking of wastewater-derived protozoan enteropathogens in engineered wetlands. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 101: 532-533.
  3. Graczyk, T. K., F. E. Lucy, L. Tamang, and A. Miraflor. 2007. Human enteropathogen load in activated sewage sludge and corresponding sewage sludge-end products. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73 (6): 2013-2015.
  4. Cheng H. A., F. A. Lucy, T. K. Graczyk, M. A. Broaders, L. Tamang, and M. Connolly. 2008. Fate of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts, and Giardia duodenalis cysts during secondary wastewater treatments. Parasitology Research 105 (3): 689-696.
  5. Graczyk, T. K., F. Lucy, Y. Mashinsky, R. C. A. Thompson, Z. Graczyk, O. Koru, A. J. daSilva. 2009. Human zoonotic enteropathogens in a constructed free-surface flow wetland. Parasitology Research 105: (2) 423-428.

Food and Water Safety; a Right not a Privilege
(Selected Publications)

  1. Graczyk T. K., D. Sunderland, G. N. Awantang, Y. Mashinski, F. E. Lucy, Z. Graczyk, L. Chomicz, and P. N. Breysse. 2010. Relationships among bather density, levels of human waterborne pathogens, and fecal bacterial indicator counts in marine recreational beach water. Parasitology Research 106 (5): 1103-1108.
  2. Jedrzejewski, S.,  T. K. Graczyk, A. Slodkowicz-Kowalska, L. Tamang, and A. C. Majewska. 2007. A quantitative assessment of the contamination of fresh food produce from various retail types with human-virulent microsporidian spores. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73, (12): 4071-4073.
  3. Graczyk, T. K., C. McOliver, E. K. Silbergeld, L. Tamang, and J. D. Roberts. 2007. Risk of handling as a route of exposure to infectious waterborne Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73 (12): 4069-4070.
  4. Graczyk, T. K., L. Tamang, and R. Pelz. 2007. The effect of a taste enhancement process for cold-stored raw shell-stock oysters (Crassostrea virginica) on the spillage of human enteropathogens. Parasitology Research 101 (6) 1483-1486.
  5. Fried, B., T. K. Graczyk, and L. Tamang. 2004. Food-borne intestinal trematodiases in humans. Parasitology Research 93: 159-170.
  6. Graczyk, T. K., R. H. Gilman, and B. Fried. 2001. Fasciolopsiasis: is it a controllable food-borne disease? Parasitology Research 87, (1): 80-83.
  7. Fayer, R., C. A. Farley, E. J. Lewis, J. M. Trout, and T. K. Graczyk. 1997. Potential role of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium parvum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63: 2086-2088.
  8. Graczyk, T. K., E. J. Lewis, G. Glass, A. J. DaSilva, L. Tamang, A. S. Girouard, F. C. Curriero. 2007. Quantitative assessment of viable Cryptosporidium parvum load in commercial oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in the Chesapeake Bay. Parasitology Research 100 (2): 247-253.

Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases; Care to be Aware
(Selected Publications)

  1. Nizeyi, J. B., D. Sebunya, A. J. DaSilva, M. R. Cranfield, N. J. Pieniazek, and T. K. Graczyk, 2002. Cryptosporidiosis in people sharing habitats with free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 66, (4): 442-444.
  2. Nizeyi J. B., M. R. Cranfield, and T. K. Graczyk. 2002. Cattle near the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis for local community and free-ranging gorillas.  Parasitology Research 88: 380-385.
  3. Cranfield, M. R., L. Gaffikin, P. K. Kayobotsi, T. K. Graczyk, C. Whittier, T. Mudakikwa, N. Lerche, R. Minnis, D. Tack, and F. Nutter. 2004. Risk of disease transmission between conservation personnel and the mountain gorillas; results from an employee health program in Rwanda. Ecosystem Health 1 (4): 351-362.
  4. Graczyk, T. K., A. C. Majewska, and K. J. Schwab. 2008. The role of aquatic birds in dissemination of human waterborne enteropathogens. Trends in Parasitology 24 (2); 55-59.
  5. Graczyk, T. K., and B. Fried. 2007. Human waterborne trematode and protozoan infections. Advances in Parasitology 64: 112-160.

Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases; May Have Saved Your Life
(Selected Publications)

  1. Xiao, L., R. M. Ryan, T. K. Graczyk, J. Limor, L. Li, M. Koumbert, R. Hunge, I. M. Sulaiman, L. Zhou, M. J. Arrowood, B. Koudela, D. Modry, and A. A. Lal. 2004. Genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in captive reptiles. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70, (2): 891-899.
  2. Bandyopadhyay, K., K. L. Kellar, I. Moura, M. C. Casaqui-Corollo, T. K. Graczyk, S. Slemena, and A. J. DaSilva. 2007. A rapid assay for identification of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum in samples from outbreak and sporadic cases of infection. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 45 (9): 2835-2840.
  3. Morgan, U. M., L. Xiao, R. Fayer, T. K. Graczyk, A. A. Lal, P. Deplazes, and R. C. A. Thompson. 1999. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence data and RAPD analysis of Cryptosporidium isolates from captive snakes. Journal of Parasitology 85 (3): 525-530.
  4. Graczyk, T. K., A. J. DaSilva, M. R. Cranfield, J. Bosco Nizeyi, G. R. N. N. Kalema, and N. J. Pieniazek. 2001. Cryptosporidium parvum Genotype 2 infections in free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) of the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Parasitology Research 87, (5): 368-370.
  5. Graczyk, T. K., J. B. Nizeyi, B. Ssebide, R. C. A. Thompson, C. Read, and M. R. Cranfield. 2002. Anthropozoonotic Giardia duodenalis Genotype (Assemblage) A infections in habitas of free-ranging human-habituated gorillas, Uganda. Journal of Parasitology 88, (5): 905-909.
  6. Downey, A., S., and T. K. Graczyk. 2007. Maximizing recovery and detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from spiked Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Applied Environmental Microbiology 73 (21); 6910-6915. 
  7. McCutchan, T. F., K. C. Grim, J. Li, W. Weiss, D. Rathore, M. Sullivan, T. K. Graczyk, S. Kumar, and M. R. Cranfield. 2004. Measuring the effect of an ever-changing environment on malaria control.  Infection and Immunity 72, (4): 2248-2253.
  8. Xiao, L., A. Singh, J. Limor, T. K. Graczyk, S. Gradus and A. Lal. 2001. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium oocysts in samples of raw surface and wastewater. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67, (3): 1097-1101.

Student Resources:


Pet Waste effecting Water Quality and Food Safety in Yuma, Arizona
Bottled versus Tap Water: Public Health
Water Recreation and Waterborne Infections
Dangerous Beach Waters
Swimmers vs. Pathogens
Non-native Oysters
Beach Closures
Arian Malaria in Penguins
Water Pollution; Mid Atlantic Region
International Collaboration