1400-1500 AD


1.               Johann Gutenberg: (1398- February 3, 1468) He was a German metalworker and inventor. He invented the printing press based on presses used in wine making, and they were the fist movable type. He in 1455, helped to print out two Bibles that became the first books printed from his press.

2.               Spanish Inquisition: It was enforcing the Iimpieza de sangre (“cleanliness of blood”). This Inquisition was a result of the recon quest of Spain from the Muslim religion and attempt to convert the Spanish Jews and Muslims to Christianity. The Pope Sixtus IV worked against the Inquisition, but since Ferdinand threaten to withhold the military support in Sicily, he issued the Bull to establish order in 1478. Pope Sixtus alleged that the Inquisition was just to get the Jew’s property, and for that, he allowed Sicily to be attacked by the Turks and threatened to withhold the military so the Pope relented. Pope Sixtus had to give his blessing after that incident, in 1484. He died and his successor was Pope Innocent VIII, whom supported the Inquisition fully, and ordered that all Catholic monarchs send the fleeing Jews back to Spain for trail. Inquisition was finally removed during Napoleonic rule (1808-1812), reinstituted when Ferdinand VII of Spain came to throne, and officially ended in 1834.

3.               Fall of Constantinople: (May 29, 1453) this was the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Sultan Mehmed II, ruler of the Ottoman Turks, led this assault; it took fifty days to take over the city. The Turks had 100,000-150,000 over the mere 10,000 men defending Constantinople. They used huge cannons, warships to cut the city’s sea defense and an extensive infantry to engulf the city. This battle was also was the ending of the Eastern Roman Empire and the death of Constantine XI, the last Roman Empire. Once the city was over-taken, they declared it for Islam and built within the city, mosques, palaces, monuments, and a system of aqueducts. 

4.                                                                           Joan of Arc: (January 6, 1412- May 30, 1431) She was known as the Maid of Orleans (Pucelled’Orleans). She was the national heroine of France; she led French forces against the English, and a saint of the Catholic Church. She was known as the one who talk to God, and she said he told her to lead the French against the English in the battle of Orleans. The Burgundians captured her, and then they gave her to the English who condemned her for heresy and burnt her at the stake in Rouen.

5.       Renaissance: It was known as the “Rinascimento” (in Italian). It was a cultural movement, which brought a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation. There were many regions that the Renaissance happened within, it first started in Italy, France, Germany, English, and lastly the Northern. During the Renaissance, the artistic and science revolution being studied were the Art of painting, architecture, literature, science, dance, music, philosophy, and warfare.

6.       Western Schism: (1378- 1415) It was also known as the Western Schism or Papal Schism. The Roman Catholic Church split when the French king did not like the Italian Pope Urban VI (1378) and left to elect his own Pope. It last 68 years, and during this time there were two Popes reining the Catholic Church. The Council of Constance resolved the schism by electing Pope Martin V (1417-1431) after they deposed john XXIII and Avignon Pope Benedict XIII and receiving resignation from Roman Pope Gregory XII.

7.       Henry the Navigator: (March 4, 1394- November 13, 1460) He was a prince of Portugal, and he was an important figure in European colonial expansion. He was the founder of the Aviz dynasty. On May 25, 1420, he was appointed governor of the Order of Christ, which was the successor to the Knight’s Templar. He was the organizer and financial supporter of many explorations that led to great discoveries, such as Vasco da Gama, Bartolomeu Dias, and Pedro Álvares Cabral.

8.       War of the Roses: (1455-1487) there was a Civil war between the House of Lancaster and the House of York, fighting for the throne after King Edward III. This name was given because of the badges Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York. The Lancaster has found support from the North and West of the England, and the York has found support from the South and East.

9.       Niccolo Machiavelli: (May 3, 1469- June 21, 1527) He was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. He wrote the book II Principe (The Prince), which was a book, intended to be an instruction book for rulers on how to be an effective ruler and what to do during your reign.

10.    Ferdinand II of Aragon: (March 10, 1452- June 23, 1516) Ferdinand was King of Aragon, Castile, Sicily, Naples, Navarre, and Count of Barcelona. His marriage to Isabella I of Castile brought the two countries together and brought fore two children: Joanna of Castile(November 6, 1479 - April 11, 1555),  and Catherine of Aragon(December 16, 1485 - January 7, 1536). In November 1511, Henry VII of England signed the Treaty of West Minster, which pledged mutual aid between England and Spain against France.

11.    Vasco da Gama: (1469-December 4, 1524) He was a Portuguese explorer who was the first person to sail from Europe to Malabar, India. He began his journey on July 8, 1497 with four ships and reached Calicut, on the southeastern coast of India on May 20. 1498. His return back he was given the title of “Admiral of the Indian Ocean”, and was responsible for Portugal’s success as an early colonizing power.

12.    Henry VII of England (Lord of Ireland): (January 28, 1457- April 21, 1509) He was born in Pembroke, Wales. His rein started the Tudor dynasty: Prince of Wales Arthur (September 20, 1486- April 2, 1502) died from the disease hantavirus, Margaret Tudor (November 28, 1489-October 18, 1541) was married three times, Henry VIII of England (June 28, 1492- January 28, 1547) was married six times and created three acts that got him elected to by head of the Roman Catholic Church, Elizabeth Tudor (July2, 1492-September 14, 1495), Mary Tudor (March 18, 1496- June 25, 1533), Edmund Tudor (February 2, 1503- February 2, 1503) died ok unknown causes a year and four months after he was born. He built up the English Royal Navy.

13.    Bartolomeu Dias: (c.1450- May 29.1500) He was a Portuguese explorer who sailed around the Cape of Good Hope in 1488. He was the first European to sail that route since ancient times. He was sent to find a better trade route to Asia by King John II of Portuguese in October 10, 1486. He explored 2,030 KM of unknown African coast, and was known to have accompanied Vasco da Gama and Pedro Alvares Cabral in their own explorations. He died in a shipwreck off the coast of Cape of Good Hope during a storm.

14.    Leonardo Da Vinci: (April 15, 1452- May 2, 1519) He was an Italian architect, musician, inventor, engineer, sculptor, and painter from the Renaissance. He was known as a universal genius. His most famous paintings were the “Last Supper” and the “Mona Lisa.” He was also known to study anatomy, astronomy, and civil engineering.

15.    John Huss: (1369- July 6, 1415) He was born in Husinec, Bohemia and was burned at the stake in Constance. He was a religious thinker and reformer, who formed a movement based on ideas of John Wyclif. His followers were known as Hussities. Due to his heresy against the Catholic Church, he was excommunicated in 1411, then condemned by the Council of Constance and burned at the stake.

16.    Donatello: (1386- December 13, 1466) He was a Florentine artist and sculptor during the Renaissance. His famous work include the sculptor of David at the Bargello, and the colossal figure of Saint John the Evangelist, which is placed no in the chapel of Duome.

17.    Zheng He: (1371-1435) He was a Chinese mariner and explorer, who was known as the explorer of the Western Ocean. He was known as “Eunuch Sandao to the Western Ocean” or “Zheng He to the Western Ocean” (1405-1433). The Western Ocean is considered Southeast Asia, Sumatra, Java, Ceylon, Arabia, India, Persia, Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea as far North as Egypt, and Africa, the Mozambique Channel. He brought back trophies and envoys to China, but the Chinese ships ended after the Xuande Emperor took the throne.

18.    Louis XI of France: (July 3, 1423- August 30, 1483) He was nicknamed “l'universelle aragne” meaning the universal spider. King of France from 1461-1483, He was the son of Charles VII of France and Mary of Anjou. He was part of the Valois dynasty and he reigned for 22 years. He had two marriages within his reign to Margaret, daughter of King James I of Scotland, on June 24, 1436; and to eight year old Charlotte of Savory (1443- December 1, 1483). The marriage to Charlotte was not considered a marriage until she was 14, she had three children: Anne (April 1461- November 14, 1522), Jeanne (April 23, 1464- February 4, 1505), and Charles VIII (June 30, 1470- April 8, 1498) who succeeded him in the throne.

19.    Aztecs: The rulers of this empire are Chimalpopoca (1417), Itzocoatl (1427), Moctezuma I also known as Motecuhzoma I (1440), Axayacatl (1469), Tizoc (1481), and Auitzotl (1486). The education of this culture was the life skills were taught until the children were fourteen and then the boys at age fifteen went to official school. They believed in human sacrifices to the gods to bless the people. Although the fall of this great empire was during the 16th Century, we found that the rise and build up of this culture was important. Cortez brought on the downfall of the Aztecs in 1521; the relinquishing of this culture was by murdering the people and the epidemics of illnesses that were brought that the Aztecs were not immune to.

20.    Christopher Columbus: (1451- May 20, 1506) He was an Italian explorer and trader. He believed that the Far East could be reached by going westward. He crossed the Atlantic and founded the Americas in 1492 for Spain. Although he landed in the Bahamas, Caribbean, isles of Cuba and Hispaniola, he never reached present day United States. Some people hold him at high honors that his discoveries gave to Western expansion and culture. However, many of Native Americans hold him responsible for the death of tens of millions of indigenous people, slavery in the West Indies and exploitation of the Americas by Europe.




The Ones that Did Not Make the List


Filippo Brunelleschi: (1377- 1446) He was the first great Florentine architect of the Italian Renaissance. He designed and built the Pazzi Chapel a church for Santa Croce built in 1442 and his masterpiece was the octagonal-ribbed dome of the Duomo that was completed in 1434.

John Badby: He was born in 1410. He a Lollard martyrs (tailor) in the West Midlands, was condemned by Worcester diocesan court for his denial of transubstantiation. He was the first person to be sentenced to burn at the stake for heresy. He was given the able to recant by Henry V, but he stood by belief.

Pope Nicholas V: (November 15, 1397March 24, 1455) He was pope from March 6, 1447, to March 24, 1455. He founded the Vatican Library, one of the oldest and most significant libraries of historical texts that holds over nine thousand volumes.

Sultanate of Malacca: (1402-1511) This was discovered my Parameswara, a prince from Srivijayan. He founded the new capital of Malacca in 1402 between Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. He later converted to Islam and became the ruler of Malacca known as a Sultan, in 1414. A Portuguese fleet from Cochin, India led by Viceroy Alfonso d'Albuquerque ended up killing the Sultan due to refusal to met demands. Then Mahmud Shah ‘s son who receive invitation to rule Malacca, ruled after Shah fled out of the country and died.

Michelangelo Buonarroti: (March 6, 1475- February 18, 1564) He was a Renaissance painter, sculptor, poet, and architect. The only famous sculptor that is held within the 15th Century is the Pieta, which was finished in 1499 and was 18 cm (six feet) high. His other famous artwork were placed within the 16th Century such as the famous fresco ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (1508-1512), the Last Judgment over the altar, the sculptor of David (1504), and the paints The Martyrdom of St. Peter and  The Conversion of St. Peter in the Vatican’s Cappella Paolina.